Manzoor Hasan, Executive Director of SAILS and Chair of the UNCAC Coalition, a global network of over 350 civil society organizations, presented at a workshop on raising awareness, sharing experiences and stimulating debate around two major and complimentary instruments – the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) and SDG 16. Mr Hasan shared key lessons learned from Bangladesh on the links between organized crime, corruption and development. He emphasized the need to bring together anti-corruption efforts, access to justice, rule of law, non-violence, inclusiveness and institutional integrity in order to sustain economic development. Moreover, he pointed out the need to change embedded interests and empower local actors and social movements in order to establish justice at the local level.
Read more about the workshop here.
67 per cent of land is under communal tenure and supports about 10 million people and 70 percent of the livestock population. Largely, these lands are characterised by high temperatures and low rainfall and are inhabited by pastoral communities practising extensive livestock production. Communal land tenure systems not only facilitate this type of livestock keeping but also play a key role in determining the social, economic and political status of pastoral communities. From the colonial period, pastoralism has been misunderstood. The colonial government implemented land policies such as the East African Royal Commission 1953-1955 and the Swynnerton Plan of 1954, which advocated for individualisation and privatisation of land tenure. They viewed pastoralism as retrogressive and inefficient. Instead, private land tenure was seen as the best form of promoting investment and improving productivity. They argued that private and individual tenure was a key step towards improving environmental conservation, reducing herd size and improving livestock breeds, thereby improving productivity and livelihoods. The post-independence government maintained these policies and further, the Lawrence Report of 1966 recommended privatisation of land in pastoral areas. With support from donors, the Government in the 1960s and 1970s established group ranches starting in the now Kajiado County, before spreading out to other Maasai lands.